华夏彩票

Information dynamics.

事故案例

2018年3月12日16時14分,江西九江一石化企業柴油加氫裝置原料緩沖罐(設計壓力0.38MPa)發生爆炸著火事故,造成2人死亡、1人輕傷。經初步分析,事故直接原因是循環氫壓縮機因潤滑油壓力低而停機后,加氫原料進料泵隨即聯鎖停泵,但因泵出口未設置緊急切斷且單向閥功能失效,加之操作人員未能第一時間關閉泵出口手閥,反應系統內高壓介質(壓力5.7MPa)通過原料泵出入口倒竄入加氫原料緩沖罐,導致緩沖罐超壓爆炸著火。事故暴露出以下突出問題:一是事故裝置建成于1990年,其加氫原料進料泵出口當時沒有設置緊急切斷閥,在后來多次改造中也沒有進行完善,本質安全水平低,埋下安全隱患。二是設備設施維護保養不到位,未及時對泵出口單向閥進行檢查維護,事故后拆檢發現單向閥已失效。三是風險管控不到位,應用HAZOP等分析工具進行風險辨識、評估和管控的能力不足,對加氫裝置高壓竄低壓的危害認識不足。四是應急處置不到位。循環氫壓縮機潤滑油壓低報警后,長時間未能排除故障,處理過程中引起潤滑油壓力低低聯鎖停機;循環氫壓縮機停機后,未能第一時間關閉加氫原料進料泵出口手閥,切斷高壓竄低壓的通路。
有關石化企業要針對該起事故暴露問題對相關裝置進行對照檢查,消除隱患,避免類似事故再次發生。一是立即開展同類裝置專項安全隱患排查治理。要重點排查同時有高壓低壓系統的裝置防高壓竄低壓措施采取情況、加氫裝置進料泵出口緊急切斷和聯鎖設置情況、同一企業同類裝置新老設計不一樣的情況,對存在安全隱患的要及時整改;相關設計單位要對已設計投產的同類裝置進行梳理,發現原設計可能存在安全隱患的,要及時通報有關項目業主。二是提升安全風險管理水平。要強化設備設施維護保養,注意收集和獲取各類設備設施的失效概率數據;要進一步提升應用HAZOP、LOPA等工具進行安全風險管控的能力,全面提升安全風險管理科學化水平。三是強化應急處置能力。要優化完善應急預案和應急處置卡,結合崗位開展應急技術技能專項培訓,提高員工應急處置能力。四是認真吸取同類企業事故教訓。1987年3月22日,英國格朗季蒙思煉油廠加氫裝置因高壓分離器氣體竄入低壓分離器,導致低壓分離器超壓爆炸,繼而發生大火,造成1人死亡,裝置嚴重損壞,經濟損失7850萬美元。有關企業要廣泛收集國內外同類企業發生的事故案例,深刻吸取事故教訓,結合企業實際排查治理安全隱患,抓早抓小,防范事故于未然。



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华夏彩票
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